Academic Calendar 2022-2023

Geology (GEOL)

GEOL 102  Gemstones: Their Art, History, and Science  Units: 3.00  

Gemstones have played an important role in society throughout history. The role of gemstones and other precious materials will be illustrated through the study of works of art and popular literature. The physical properties that make gems attractive are explained. Gemstone marketing and ethical considerations of mining methods will be explored.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (24L;12T;36O;48P).

Requirements: Prerequisite None.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 104  The Dynamic Earth  Units: 3.00  

Introduction to the internal structure of the Earth and the processes that have shaped its surface. Global tectonics and continental movement, rock genesis, mountain building, glaciations and geological time. Laboratories include rock and mineral identification, and problem solving in historical geology, earthquakes, groundwater flow and coastal erosion.
NOTE Also offered at the Bader International Studies Centre, Herstmonceux. Learning Hours may vary.
LEARNING HOURS 108 (36L;12Lb;60P).

Requirements: Prerequisite None.  
Course Equivalencies: GEOL 104/105 / APSC 151  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 106  Environmental Geology and Natural Hazards  Units: 3.00  

The relationship between human-kind and our ever-changing planet, with a focus on natural geologic hazards (volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, mass movement, floods, extraterrestrial impacts, etc.), and environmental impacts which result from population and land-use expansion and our increased use of water, energy and mineral resources. A study of the sources and impact of pollution and global climate change. Public perception of and response to geological risk.
NOTE Also offered at the Bader International Studies Centre, Herstmonceux. Learning Hours may vary.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (36L;12O;72P).

Requirements: Prerequisite None.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 107  History of Life  Units: 3.00  

The history of life, from its inception four billion years ago to the present day, focusing on the inter-relationship between organic evolution and global change. Coevolution of early life and the atmosphere; development of marine animals and their ecosystems; invasion of the land; dinosaurs and their world; mass extinctions; the Age of Mammals; and hominid evolution. Lectures plus three three-hour laboratories.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (36L;12Lb;12O;60P).

Requirements: Prerequisite None.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 200  Oceanography  Units: 3.00  

Introduction to marine science. Topics include: ocean basins and their sediments; seawater chemistry/biochemistry; ocean waves, tides and currents; ocean-atmosphere interaction; polar to tropical organism communities; marine resources; environmental concerns; global change.
LEARNING HOURS 114 (36L;12Pc;12O;48P).

Requirements: Prerequisite BIOL 102 or BIOL 103 or CHEM 112 or GEOL 104 or GEOL 106 or GEOL 107 or PHYS 104 or PHYS 106 or (PHYS 115 and PHYS 116) or PHYS 117/6.0. Exclusion BIOL 338.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 212  Introduction to Mineralogy  Units: 3.00  

An introduction to the crystallography and crystal chemistry of rock-forming minerals for students not in the Geological Sciences. The structural, chemical and genetic aspects of the crystalline state as displayed by minerals are considered.

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 104 or permission of the Department. Exclusion GEOL 232. Recommended 4U Chemistry is required.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 221  Geological Field Methods  Units: 3.00  

The field study of surficial deposits, rock types, and geological processes, based on the geology of the Kingston area. Descriptions, samples and measurements acquired on several field trips will be analyzed, and the results recorded in maps, sections, and reports throughout the course.
NOTE Transportation for multiple half-day Field Trips: estimated cost $75.
NOTE Full Field Kit (or when multiple items are purchased individually): estimated cost $259.
NOTE Department may require GEOL 104 and GEOL 221 be taken concurrently.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (24L;48Lb;12T;4Oc;24P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 104 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 232  Mineralogy  Units: 3.00  

Characterization of rock- and soil-forming silicate and non-silicate minerals (their crystallography, optical and physical behaviour, and crystal chemistry). The structural, chemical and genetic aspects of the crystalline state as displayed by minerals are considered. Implications of mineral properties for the engineering behaviour of soils and rocks, and for human needs, are discussed.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (36L;36Lb;48P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 104 or permission of the Department. Exclusion GEOL 212. Recommended 4U Chemistry is required.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 235  Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology  Units: 3.00  

Introduction to the genesis and characterization of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Students will acquire skills to classify rocks and the theoretical background to place these rocks in the context of where, why, and how they form with implications for resource exploration and utilization. Macroscopic and microscopic properties will be studied.

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 232.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 238  Surficial Processes, Sedimentation and Stratigraphy  Units: 3.00  

An examination of the genetic link between surficial geological processes and the sedimentary record produced by these processes. Students obtain an integrated overview of the nature and operation of the Earth-surface environment. Topics include origin of sedimentary rocks and their sedimentary structures, depositional environments and stratigraphic successions; stratigraphic principles and their application to sedimentary basins, with implications for hydrocarbon genesis; interaction of natural processes with human society.
LEARNING HOURS 130 (36L;22Lb;72P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 104 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 249  Geophysical Characterization of the Earth  Units: 3.00  

The application of physical principles to examine and characterize the Earth at all scales. The Earth's physical properties and dynamic processes will be assessed and evaluated by integrating such topics as gravity, seismology, magnetism, geochronology, and heat flow, as related to scientific and engineering problems.
LEARNING HOURS 117 (36L;48Pc;7G;24P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 104 or permission of the Department. Corequisite (MATH 120 or MATH 121 or [MATH 123 and MATH 124]) and (PHYS 104 or PHYS 106 or PHYS 107 or PHYS 117 or PHYS 118) or permission of the Department. Exclusion GEOL 269.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 262  Geological Aspects of Mineral Deposits  Units: 3.00  

The basic mineralogy and petrology of mineral deposits are examined. The formation and classification of mineral deposits, considering such aspects as tectonic setting, age, rock composition, geometry, and mineralogy are investigated. Emphasis is placed on the processes by which mineral deposits are formed and transformed, and their influence on mining and production. Laboratory work integrates geological information from the scale of hand samples to regional maps as tools to assist with mine design, estimation of ore grade and evaluation of issues related to ore processing.
LEARNING HOURS 114 (36L;18Lb;60P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 104. One-Way Exclusion May not be taken with or after GEOL 232; GEOL 362.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 269  Physics of the Earth  Units: 3.00  

An examination of the physical principles and properties exhibited by the Earth which can be used to understand its origin, structure, dynamic processes, and evolution through time. Topics such as gravity, seismology, magnetism, geochronology, and heat flow are discussed in conjunction with the unifying theory of plate tectonics.
LEARNING HOURS 117 (36L;8T;42Pc;7G;24P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 104 or permission of the Department. Corequisite (MATH 120 or MATH 121 or [MATH 123 and MATH 124]) or permission of the Department. Exclusion GEOL 249. Recommended 4U Physics is required.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 282  Managing Earth Systems: Resources and Environment  Units: 3.00  

An earth-system engineering perspective on the nature, acquisition and utilization of energy, mineral and water resources, with particular emphasis on the environmental considerations in their extraction, processing, and use. Criteria for designing resource exploration programs are examined. Practical exercises, projects and seminars (team and individual) deal with these issues, and include the design of risk-management plans, environmental life-cycle assessments, sustainable systems and ore-reserve estimations.

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 221 or GEOL 232 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 290  Worldbuilding  Units: 3.00  

A blended in-person and online lecture and design studio course on the design of worlds for fiction, art, game-design, communications, and more. Lectures and guest-lectures emphasize the requisite science , humanities, and social sciences to constrain a collaborative worldbuilding exercise delivering a partially realized world.
LEARNING HOURS 122 (24L;18S;8T;72P).

Requirements: Prerequisite Level 2 or above.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 300  Geological Field School  Units: 3.00  

An intensive one-week course taken immediately before the beginning of third year. Teams of students design and implement a geological field investigation program to produce and interpret geological field maps.
NOTE Multiday Field/Camping Trip (Kaladar, Ontario): estimated cost $450.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (120Oc).

Requirements: Prerequisite (GEOL 221 and GEOL 235) or permission of the Department. Note Visit the Department of Geological Science and Geological Engineering website for more information about this course.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 301  Field Studies in Geology I  Units: 1.50  

A multi-day field trip that uses stratigraphic, sedimentological, and paleontological data to interpret rock successions in a paleoenvironmental and tectonic context. Enrolment is limited.
NOTE Multiday Field Trip: estimated cost $500.
LEARNING HOURS 61 (1L;30Pc;15G;15P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 238. Corequisite (GEOL 321 or GEOL 337 or GEOL 368). Exclusion GEOL 302; GEOL 368 (prior to 2013); GEOL 478 (prior to 2013); GEOL 488 (prior to 2013). Note Visit the Department of Geological Science and Geological Engineering website for more information about this course.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 302  Problems in Sedimentary Geology  Units: 1.50  

An independent study of the general links between tectonics and the nature of the sedimentary record in a variety of carbonate and siliciclastic depositional environments.
NOTE This course is intended to provide an option for students in lieu of GEOL 301.
LEARNING HOURS 60 (10I;50P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 238. Corequisite ([GEOL 321 or GEOL 337 or GEOL 368] and permission of the Department). Exclusion GEOL 301; GEOL 368 (prior to 2013); GEOL 478 (prior to 2013); GEOL 488 (prior to 2013).  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 319  Applied Geophysics  Units: 3.00  

Geophysical methods (gravity, magnetic, electrical, and seismic) applied to engineering problems, including resource exploration and site investigation. Design of field programs considering physical principles, instrumentation, limitations, field procedures and data interpretation. Laboratory projects with geophysical equipment are undertaken.
LEARNING HOURS 121 (21L;18Lb;22T;12Oc;48P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 249 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 321  Analysis of Rock Structures  Units: 3.00  

The nature, origin, and interpretation of deformation and fracture of rocks, and the application of structural methods to site-investigation and resource exploitation. Topics include geometric, kinematic and dynamic analysis of brittle and ductile deformation features; and examination of deformation styles in selected tectonic environments.
NOTE Two single day Field Trips (Kaladar, Ontario): estimated cost $35.
LEARNING HOURS 122 (36L;18Lb;8Oc;60P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 221. Corequisite (GEOL 300 or permission from the Department).  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 333  Terrain Evaluation  Units: 3.00  

An introduction to the principles of geomorphology relevant to Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering. Identification and evaluation of terrain features using analog and digital imagery via traditional and digital (GIS) methods. Digital terrain model acquisition and analysis. Introduction to digital terrain analysis.
LEARNING HOURS 124 (36L;33Lb;55Pc).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 104 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 337  Paleontology  Units: 3.00  

Review of the major groups of invertebrate fossils, emphasizing functional morphology, paleoecology, evolution, and geological significance.
NOTE Field Trip (Prince Edward County, Ontario): estimated cost $35.
LEARNING HOURS 129 (36L;24Lb;6Pc;9Oc;54P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 238 or BIOL 202 or BIOL 200 or permission of the Department. Note Visit the Department of Geological Science and Geological Engineering website for more information about this course.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 341  Problems in Geology  Units: 3.00  

A problem-oriented course involving a substantial amount of self-directed learning about a topic of the student's choosing, culminating in the submission of a written report. This course is open to students only if a suitable faculty member is available.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (6I;114P).

Requirements: Prerequisite (Level 3 or above and registration in a GEOL Major or Specialization Plan) or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 343  Hydrogeology  Units: 3.00  

Development of the equations governing flow and transport; sensitivity to sub-surface complexities. Field instrumentation, installation and sampling protocols, elements of groundwater investigation. Assessment of measurement techniques and interpretation of fundamental hydrogeological properties. Groundwater occurrence, flow system analysis, with a focus on designing extraction scheme.
NOTE One field trip with a transportation fee. Estimated $35.

Requirements: Prerequisite (GEOL 238 and CHEM 112) or permission of the Department. Note Visit the Department of Geological Science and Geological Engineering website for more information about this course.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 352  Topics in Mineralogy  Units: 3.00  

Through lectures, seminars and assigned readings selected topics in mineralogy are explored. Emphasis on the current literature and the details of mineralogical phenomena will lead to better understanding of petrologic systems.
NOTE This course may not be offered every year. Please see Departmental website.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (24L;36Lb;60P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 212 or GEOL 232.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 359  Applications of Quantitative Analysis in Geological Sciences  Units: 3.00  

The theory and use of numerical computational procedures to solve geo-engineering and geoscience problems. The utility, significance and widespread applicability of analytical and numerical techniques will be illustrated in the evaluation and solution of practical problems.
LEARNING HOURS 128 (36L;22T;6I;16Oc;48P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 249 and (MATH 225 or MATH 232). Corequisite STAT 263. Exclusion GEOL 349.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 362  Petrology Applied to Ore Deposit  Units: 3.00  

Characterization of major ore deposit types using mineralogical, petrological, geochemical, and geophysical attributes. Design and evaluation of ore deposit models and exploration programs, including ore processing and environmental issues. Laboratory work integrates techniques to evaluate paragenetic sequences, ore grades, and engineering issues.
LEARNING HOURS 121 (33L;33Lb;55P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 235 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 365  Geochemical Characterization of Earth Processes  Units: 3.00  

The application of thermodynamics and kinetics to the understanding of natural processes in the Earth Sciences. Distribution of the elements, and practical uses of isotopes and elemental tracers. Geochemical actions and transactions within, and among, the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere, including the impact of human evolution and environmental geochemistry. Practical application of geochemistry to solving problems in natural systems will be emphasized. A practical involving problems, laboratory experience and field experience will be part of the course.

Requirements: Prerequisite (CHEM 112 and GEOL 232 and GEOL 235) or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 368  Carbonate Sedimentology  Units: 3.00  

The origin, composition and diagenesis of carbonate rocks. Study of modern carbonate sediments and depositional environments; development of facies models; petrographic and geochemical analysis of limestones and dolostones.
NOTE Field Trip: estimated $35.
LEARNING HOURS 121 (33L;18Lb;70P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 238 or permission of the Department. Corequisite GEOL 301. Note Visit the Department of Geological Science and Geological Engineering website for more information about this course.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 395  Geological Practicum  Units: 3.00  

Students working for a company or government in geology or environmental geology can apply for a practicum credit. Requirements: minimum 12 weeks of continuous employment, securing a faculty member as an advisor and evaluator, agreement with employer prior to commencement of work, and submission of a final report.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (120Pc).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 104 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 400  Advanced Geological Sciences Field School  Units: 3.00  

Intense one-week field course taken after third year. Field assignments of geological interest, local and regional geology and tectonic evolution of the area visited. Daily assignments when in the field on a diversity of geological problems.
NOTE Extra fees will apply to cover the cost of accommodation, travel and food. Will occur in the Fall, Winter or Summer.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (4.5L;4.5S;15G;90Oc;6P).

Requirements: Prerequisite (GEOL 300 and GEOL 321 and GEOL 365) or permission of the Department. Note Visit the Department of Geological Science and Geological Engineering website for more information about this course.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 401  Field Studies in Geology II  Units: 1.50  

A multi-day field trip that uses stratigraphic, sedimentological, paleontological, and structural data to interpret shall-and-deep-marine rock successions in paleoenvironmental and tectonic context. Enrollment is limited. Course runs during the week of Canadian Thanksgiving.
NOTE Multiday Field Trip (Quebec City, Quebec): estimated cost $500.
LEARNING HOURS 61 (1L;30Pc;15G;15P).

Requirements: Prerequisite (A minimum GPA of 2.90 in GEOL 221; GEOL 238; GEOL 321) or permission of the Department. Corequisite GEOL 488. Exclusion GEOL 402. Note Visit the Department of Geological Science and Geological Engineering website for more information about this course.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 402  Problems in North American Geology  Units: 1.50  

The self-directed detailed study of some aspect of the geological evolution of eastern North America. The topic will complement the knowledge gained in GEOL 488.
NOTE This course is intended to provide an option for students in lieu of GEOL 401.
LEARNING HOURS 60 (10I;50P).

Requirements: Prerequisite (A minimum GPA of 2.90 or a 'PASS' (obtained in Winter 2020) in GEOL 221; GEOL 238; GEOL 321) or permission of the Department. Corequisite (GEOL 488 and permission of the Department). Exclusion GEOL 401; GEOL 368 (prior to 2013); GEOL 488 (prior to 2013).  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 418  Petroleum Geology  Units: 3.00  

The origin, migration and accumulation of petroleum resources, emphasizing typical reservoir styles, potential reservoir lithologies, methods of exploration and basic concepts of formation evaluation. Concepts and applications equip students with the basic principles necessary to undertake petroleum industry exploration and production. Laboratory exercises include a major exploration problem and presentation. Offered in 2009-2010 and in alternate years thereafter.
NOTE This course may not be offered every year. Please see Departmental website.
LEARNING HOURS 129 (36L;33Lb;60P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 238 or permission of the Department. Corequisite GEOL 321.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 419  Geophysics Field School  Units: 3.00  

This 12-day, intensive field course focuses on field and laboratory techniques using a wide array of geophysical site investigation and exploration methods. Review lectures on instrument theory and principles of exploration program design. The course culminates in an exercise to design and implement an integrated geophysical site investigation.
NOTE Please contact the Department for more information. Estimated cost $800.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (8L;12G;60Pc;40P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 319 or permission of the Department. Note Visit the Department of Geological Science and Geological Engineering website for more information about this course.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 438  Topics in Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology  Units: 3.00  

A course on a topic in the field of sedimentary geology, sedimentary geochemistry, basin analysis and/or petroleum geology.
NOTE Consult the Chair of Undergraduate Studies for details of specific course offerings each academic year.

Requirements: Prerequisite Level 3 or above and registration in a GEOL Major, Medial, or Specialization Plan.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 439  Advanced Applied Geophysics  Units: 3.00  

Advanced theory and techniques for acquisition, processing and interpretation of geophysical data. Solve a problem from idea, strategy, data acquisition, processing, to interpretation and deliverables. Design projects exploit seismic, gravity, magnetic, EM methods, in oil/gas/mineral exploration, near-surface prospecting and site investigation.
LEARNING HOURS 128 (21L;24G;35I;24Oc;24P).

Requirements: Prerequisite (GEOL 249 and GEOL 319) or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 452  Instrumental Techniques Applied to the Study of Solids  Units: 3.00  

The theory and practical aspects of the techniques of X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy are studied. Other techniques including Mossbauer, infra-red spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy will also be covered. An extensive term project is required where the student employs these techniques to study a material of their choice.
NOTE This course may not be offered every year. Please see Departmental website.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (24L;36Lb;60P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 232 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 462  Advanced Petrogenesis and Metallogenesis  Units: 3.00  

Igneous petrology, geochemistry and fluid-rock interaction applied to metallogeny and ore genesis. Case studies in mineral chemistry and geochemistry. Lectures, critical reading, laboratory work and seminars will provide an advanced understanding of the major ore-forming processes in a geodynamic setting and applications to mineral exploration.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (24L;12S;36Lb;48P).

Requirements: Prerequisite (GEOL 362 and GEOL 365) or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 463  Spatial Information Management in the Geosciences  Units: 3.00  

An introduction to spatial information management focusing on methods to support and extend geological mapping, mineral and petroleum exploration, and engineering site investigation. Computers and computation, GIS software and theory, spatial simulation and analysis, databases and data management, and design of effective decision support solutions.
NOTE This course may not be offered every year. Please see Departmental website.
LEARNING HOURS 112 (33L;24Lb;55Pc).

Requirements: Prerequisite GPHY 243 or GEOL 333 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 464  Visualization in the Geosciences  Units: 3.00  

An introduction to 3D visualization of natural sciences data with a focus on methods relevant to geological engineering, mineral exploration, and geoscience research. Perception, representation, and analytical methods. Design tools and data integration methods. Temporal analysis of natural sciences data. LiDAR data analysis. Global and local models.
LEARNING HOURS 129 (24L;8S;27Lb;48Pc;22P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 463 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 466  Isotopes and the Environment  Units: 3.00  

This course is designed to expose advanced students in the fields of biology, chemistry, geography or geology to the principles of stable isotope and radiogenic isotope systematics in natural processes. Emphasis will be placed on the use of isotopes in tracing elemental cycles, biological cycles and hydrologic cycles and how some isotopes can be used to place constraints on the timing of specific events in these cycles.
NOTE This course may not be offered every year. Please see Departmental website.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (36L;12S;12Lb;60P).

Requirements: Prerequisite CHEM 112 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 472  Economic Analysis Methods in Geological Engineering  Units: 3.00  

Cost, risk, and return characteristics of mineral exploration; introduction to economic evaluation; cash flow and time value concepts; discounted cash flow methods; mining taxation considerations; sensitivity and risk analysis techniques; exploration economics and strategies; evaluation of exploration projects; exploration planning issues.

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 235 and permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 475  Exploration and Environmental Geochemistry  Units: 3.00  

Rock-water interaction and element migration in near surface environments applied to environmental and exploration problems. Students learn field and analytical techniques, evaluate and interpret geochemical data, and design solutions related to geochemical hazards to human health, environmental impact of mining, and detection of mineral deposits.
LEARNING HOURS 129 (30L;6S;33Lb;60P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 365 or permission of the Department. Exclusion GEOL 485.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 478  Terrigenous Clastic Sedimentology  Units: 3.00  

Principles of sequence stratigraphy. Depositional processes, facies models, and sequence stratigraphy of fluvial, coastal, shelf, and deep-marine environments. Introduction to analysis of sedimentary basins.
NOTE This course may not be offered every year. Please see Departmental website.
LEARNING HOURS 130 (48L;10S;36Lb;36P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 238 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 481  Advanced Structural Analysis  Units: 3.00  

Applications of the principles of brittle and ductile deformation to the fabric analysis of rocks in the optimization of strategies for open-ended resource exploration, resource engineering, continental tectonics studies, and geotechnical engineering problems. Emphasis is on fracture, fault, and vein analysis; structures in fold and thrust belts and continental collision zones; and studies of superposed deformation and their impact on effective and economical mineral resource development.
NOTE This course may not be offered every year. Please visit Departmental website.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (24L;24Lb;12T;60P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 321 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 488  Geology of North America  Units: 3.00  

An advanced course discussing the principles of earth evolution as exemplified by North America. The holistic approach illustrates the way in which geodynamics, geochemistry, sedimentation, paleo-biology and oceanography are used to unravel the history of the continent.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (36L;36S;48P).

Requirements: Prerequisite (GEOL 107 and GEOL 235 and GEOL 238 and GEOL 249 and GEOL 300 and GEOL 321 and GEOL 365) or permission of the Department. Note GEOL 321 may be taken concurrently with permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 543  Research and Thesis  Units: 6.00  

Directed, independent research on geological problems. The thesis may be based on data or material collected during summer fieldwork or in the fall/winter around Kingston, on laboratory research, or using published data. Monthly tutorials will cover various aspects of literature review, writing skills and oral presentations. A seminar concerning the thesis topic will be presented at the end of Winter term.
NOTE An electronic copy of the final thesis, formatted to the supervisor's satisfaction, must be uploaded to Qspace. The supervisor may require one hardcopy.
LEARNING HOURS 258 (6L;12S;48I;192P).

Requirements: Prerequisite Level 4 or above and registration in a (GEOL Major or Specialization Plan) and a (GPA of 3.30 (obtained in any term) or a 'Pass' (obtained in Winter 2020) in 36.0 units in GEOL) and permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 594  Independent Study  Units: 3.00  

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 595  Independent Study Program  Units: 6.00  

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science